Think You’re An Expert In Beer And It’s Colour ? Read This To Find Out More About Beer And Its Colour….

Among the various ingredients used for beer production, beer colour is determined primarily by the selection of the grains used in formulation, and more specifically the type of processing these grains have undergone. Like stock creates the base of every great soup, malt provides several key attributes that define beer , including colour, flavor, body, and, eventually through fermentation, alcohol.
Yeast does not contribute to beer colour directly, other than colour loss during production via adsorption of coloured materials to their cell wall. Indirectly, yeast can affect beer colour via turbidity in products where it remains present at packaging, such as with hefeweizen.
Barley contains very low concentrations of pigmented substances, and it is the malting process that results in colour formation. The germination and kilning phases of the malting process set the stage for and determine the extent of colour formation from Maillard browning reactions and in some cases caramelization and pyrolysis reactions. Secondary to these heat driven color-forming reactions, the oxidation of polyphenols derived from barley husk or hop vegetative matter can contribute to colour formation during beer storage/ageing. Additionally, oxidation of polyphenols can lead to enhanced protein–polyphenol interaction and the formation of non-biological haze. The scattering of light via this haze indirectly affects a consumer’s perception of colour as well as its physical measurement.
Colour is a human visual perception utilising a narrow portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (380–780 nano meters). Light itself has no colour and colour does not exist by itself , it only exists in the mind of the viewer . Colour perception exists in two stages. The first is a purely physical phenomenon that requires three elements: a source of light, an object and a detector (an eye, a diode, etc.) while the second stage is a complicated and incompletely known process whereby the human eye transmits information that the brain will interpret as colour.
The principal attributes of any object’s color are hue, lightness and saturation.
1. Hue is the quality we normally identify as an object’s colour, such as red, green, yellow and so forth. Hues form what we describe as the colour wheel. The human eye can identify more than a million different hues .
2. Lightness is a term related to the concept of light and dark and is used to classify colors by separating those that are bright, mid-tone or dark.
3. Saturation or chroma is completely separate from hue and lightness. It can be defined as purity of colour; that is as a colour moves away from a central neutral Gray its saturation increases as it becomes more vivid and less dull.
Often these three color attributes are described.
What is Light?
What is colour ? What cause Colour ?
colored light comes to the eyes in the following ways
Primary Source
1) Directly from a light source.
Secondary Source
2) Light reflected off on object
3) Light transmission through the object.
For Secondary Sources, Interaction of Primary Light and Secondary Source is Very Important
In case of beer white light is transformed into yellow and blue when absorbed.
Measuring Beer Colour
Historically, beer colour was determined by visual comparisons against a set of colour standards. Joseph Lovibond developed a set of standards and a tintometer in 1893 while solutions of potassium chromate have been used as reference standards in the early 20th century. The use of standardised Lovibond coloured glasses made it possible to compare measurements from different Lovibond Tintometers. After a series of modifications, these standardised comparator discs were accepted by the European Brewing Convention in 1951. So ingrained was this approach that many brewers and maltsters today still refer to color values in degrees Lovibond. The tintometer approach, while satisfactory at the time, had inherent flaws due to variation in color perception by the human observer. Because red-green colour blindness is present at roughly 7% of the male population. Furthermore, instability of the glass or liquid colour standards over time, for instance orange dichromate slowly reducing to green chromium , would lead to false color estimates.
The solution to both of these issues was single wavelength measurements using a precision spectrophotometer.
A beer colour is measured in Standard Reference Method (SRM) or European Brewery Convention (EBC) Units. SRM is based on Lovibond scale and determined from a wort analysis. this is a spectrophotometer measurement, does not indicate hue, only depth when viewed at a wavelength of 475 nanometers.
A white shade of 2 SRM
Orange / Tan of 10 SRM
Red / Brown of 20 SRM
Mahogany or black of 30 SRM
Various Spectrum of colours
Maillard browning reactions are key to beer colour and they originate in the barley endosperm during malting but can resume during wort boiling. The two key components of this reaction are reducing sugars (principally maltose) and free amino acids or amino groups of amino acids that comprise protein.
In addition to pH, the Maillard reaction is principally driven by time and temperature and modulated to a lesser extent by moisture. In the range of 60–100 ° C, an increase of 1 ° C can increase the rate of the Maillard reaction by more than 10% . Increasing heat exposure to higher temperatures promotes the production of more advanced Maillard reaction products because of their higher energy of activation thus resulting in greater color formation.
Colors produced by melanoidins are yellow, orange and red initially and turn to brown as the Maillard reaction is allowed to proceed. Lightly kilned malt displays yellow colors characteristic of light lager beer while intensely kilned products display amber and brown hues characteristic of British ales or Vienna lagers.
Colouring agents such as malt extracts and caramel colouring can be added post-fermentation as a means of adjusting the beer’s final colour. These products are intensely coloured with colours ranging from 250 to 3500 ° SRM for concentrated malt extracts and 5000 to 30,000 ° SRM for caramels.

How to avoid Beer HANGOVERS”

The most common reason is overdose”

It probably happened to you too, after a long night out with one little drink too many, to feel the world spinning around you in the morning, to feel your head heavy and your stomach crunched. That was the moment you cursed your life and promised yourself you’ll stop drinking. For good! Yet it happened again, because you just forgot how awful that feeling was, or because you were having too much fun to count your drinks, or. just because.

So you know that drinking alcohol causes hangovers, but what exactly in it not even the physicians can tell you. They even have problems whether to recommend drinking alcohol or not. Some simply forbid it, while others, knowing the proven benefits of many alcoholic drinks, recommend to their patients a moderate consumption of alcohol. Yes: moderation is the key and the second answer to the question “how to avoid hangovers“, the first being: don’t drink.

”Wine, whiskey and bourbon can cause a harder hangover than beer and vodka.”

Some chemical substances like sulfites found in red wines or the yeast in unfiltered beer can cause severe headaches in many people. However, some people have trouble with histamine in wine, those who lack an enzyme in their intestines that can help them metabolize histamine. Tyramine, meantime can cause your blood pressure to rise, and that triggers headaches in some people. These same people might get headaches from aged cheeses, smoked or cured meats, and citrus fruits.

Hangovers happen

Hangovers are easy to avoid. Don’t drink. Or at least don’t drink too much. Because physicians do not absolutely know what causes a “hangover” there are many suggestions for

a) avoiding them and

b) for recovering quickly when a) fails.

What causes hangovers?

– Drinking alcohol. But you probably knew that.

– Dehydration. Alcohol is a diuretic; it makes you urinate and flushes fluids from the body. Drinking coffee only makes matters worse, because coffee also is a diuretic. The dehydration caused by alcohol and coffee can be minimized by drinking plenty of water. A headache is a symptom of dehydration and may be eased with pain relievers and water.

– Some alcohol is worse than others. Brandy, red wine, rum, whiskey, beer, white wine, gin, and vodka are worst to least in descending order of likelihood to cause a hangover. The British Medical Journal did tests that showed drinking bourbon is twice as likely to cause a hangover than the same amount of vodka.

– Different drinks for different folks. If you are allergic to yeast, for instance, unfiltered crafted beer might leave you with a terrible headache. Certain people are sensitive to sulfur dioxide, an anti-oxidizing agent added to many wines to keep them fresh; others get headaches from the chemical substance found in dark grape skins. The latter will drink white wine with no effects and suffer from red wines.

– Mixing drinks can cause hangovers. Be careful with what you’re drinking and when you’re drinking it. Remember this rhyme: “Beer before liquor, never sicker. Liquor before beer, never fear.” Beer or any other carbonated alcoholic beverage is absorbed much more quickly into your body. Drinking it before other alcoholic beverages will cause them to be absorbed more quickly as well.

– The rate at which one absorbs alcohol can depend on mood — increased adrenaline pushes alcohol through the system much faster. Therefore, feeling deeply depressed or ecstatically happy makes you drunk faster.

Taking preventative steps

– Begin by considering your height, weight and personal tolerance for alcohol when drinking.

– Drink a glass of milk to start the evening. It will retard the absorption of alcohol, and protect your stomach against irritations.

– Never drink on an empty stomach. Food helps to absorb some of the alcohol and aids the body in digesting it faster. Consider eating starchy foods to slow the alcohol absorption.

– Limit yourself to less than one drink per hour.

– Drink a glass of water between each beer you order.

– Back in the ’60s, a navy subcontractor provided “hangover shots,” vitamin B injections, in the infirmaries of its many large U.S. centers. The shots were massive replacements of the water-soluble vitamins the previous night’s massive consumption of alcohol had dehydrated right out of people. A good dose of water mixed with brewer’s yeast (which is full of Vitamin B) before going to bed is a poor man’s option.

– Even if you pass on the Vitamin B, drink lots of water before going to bed.

You’re hungover – some cures?

– Sleep. It gives your body time to recover. A tired or unfit drinker is especially vulnerable to hangovers.

– Keep drinking water.

– Eat. Complex carbohydrates such as bread and pasta will raise your blood sugar level. Bananas are excellent because they contain complex carbohydrates, potassium, and Vitamin C. And if your stomach can’t face food? Chamomile tea is best, and make the first cup really strong. The chamomile will help your stomach, and if you take in quantities of water with the tea, it will ease the pain.

– Exercise. This will help you sweat the alcohol out of your system.


The information provided should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. The site owner makes no representation or warranty regarding the accuracy, reliability, completeness, or timeliness of the content, text or graphics. Links to other sites are provided for information only – they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites which may contain additional information about the symptoms of dehydration or dehydration pictures.

Understanding The Background Of Benefits Of Moderate Beer Consumption At Different Stages Of Life Of Women

Beer is a natural beverage low calorie, low degree of alcohol, no fats or sugars and a significant amount of carbohydrates, vitamins, and proteins. Beneficial health qualities are based in the presence of the antioxidant compounds (polyphenols), which reduce the presence of free radicals in the organism, and phytoestrogens, elements biosimilar to natural estrogens. In pregnant women, beer, obviously alcohol-free, presents elements in its composition that differs it from other fermented beverages as it is the folic acid, vitamin necessary to prevent defects of the neural tube in the foetus or regulate homocysteine.

With regard to breastfeeding, beer alcohol-free supplementation increases the antioxidant activity in breast milk and therefore reduces the oxidative stress of the new-born after birth in menopause, the presence of antioxidants, vitamins, nutrients, and dietetic fibre, as well as phytoestrogens, is highly beneficial in the prevention of pathologies arising from the decline in estrogens. Osteoporosis also is effectively combated by the beer. The intake of beer favours a greater bone mass in women, irrespective of their gonadal status.

Beer is one of the earliest human inventions and globally the most consumed alcoholic beverage in terms of volume. In addition to water, the ‘German Beer Purity Law’, based on the Bavarian Beer Purity Law from 1516, allows only barley, hops, yeasts and water for beer brewing. The extracts of these ingredients, especially the hops, contain an abundance of polyphenols such as kaempferol, quercetin, tyrosol, ferulic acid, xanthohumol/isoxanthohumol/8-prenylnaringenin, α-bitter acids like humulone and β-bitter acids like lupulone. 8-prenylnaringenin is the most potent phytoestrogen known to date. These compounds have been shown to possess various anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative,antiangiogenic,anti-melanogenic,antiosteoporotic and anti-carcinogenic effects. Epidemiological studies on the association between beer drinking and skin disease are limited while direct evidence of beer compounds in clinical application is lacking. Potential uses of these substances in dermatology may include treatment of atopic eczema, contact dermatitis, pigmentary disorders, skin infections, skin aging, skin cancers, and photo protection, which require an optimization of the bio stability and topical delivery of these compounds. Further studies are needed to determine the bioavailability of these compounds and their possible beneficial health effects when taken by moderate beer consumption.

Hop polyphenols can inhibit the growth of Streptococci, thereby delaying the onset of dental caries.Dark beers particularly inhibit the synthesis of a polysaccharide that anchors such bacteria to the teeth.

Hops have been used for centuries as a flavoring agent in beer. But over the years, a recurring suggestion has been that hops, and therefore beer, may be estrogenic—thanks to a potent phytoestrogen in hops known as hopein. Might beer drinking affect our hormones?

Hops are more effective than other widely used plant preparations in alleviating post-menopausal symptoms.

Hop extracts suppress menopausal hot flushes. Hops are a constituent of some herbal breast enhancement preparations for women.

Beer Scientists describe the received wisdom that moderate beer consumption may help in the initiation and success of breast-feeding. It may be that an as yet unidentified barley polysaccharide promotes prolactin secretion. Perhaps too the relaxing effects of alcohol and hop components have a beneficial impact on lacto genesis.

The level of the principle isoflavanoid, isoxanthohumol, found in beer (1.5 mg/l or less) is some 20-fold less than the effective human dose for anticancer treatments. Beer Scientist also suggest that beer may account for around 10% of the daily intake of phytoestrogens. Such phytoestrogens are understood to counter breast cancer, as well as cardiovascular disease.

Now, even just the alcohol in beer can reduce testosterone levels in men. So, when beer was tested as a source of estrogens, the alcohol was first removed. They tested the equivalent of one can of beer a day for one month on the hormone levels of postmenopausal women, so as not to confound the results with endogenous estrogens, and they found significant alterations of hormonal levels during the beer month and then coming back to baseline a week afterward. But does this have any clinical effects—either good or bad?

A cross-sectional study of about 1,700 women found that beer drinkers appeared to have better bone density, perhaps because of the pro-estrogenic effects. They don’t recommend women start drinking beer for bone health but suggest it may have beneficial bone effects for women who already drink. What about helping with hot flashes? About half of postmenopausal and perimenopausal women suffer from hot flashes, whereas the prevalence in Japan may be ten times lower—presumed to be because of their soy consumption.

What about hops? There have been a few studies like this, and this, showing potential benefit, leading to this 2013 review, suggesting that hops extracts may be somewhat effective in treating menopausal discomfort.

But that was before this study, which reported extraordinary results with about a half teaspoon of dried hops flowers. For example, hot flashes on the bottom. In the placebo group on the right there, the women started out having about 23 hot flashes a week, and throughout the three-month study, continued to have 23 hot flashes a week. In the hops group, they started out even worse, but then down to 19 at the end of the first month, then nine, then just once a week, basically. And similar findings were reported for all the other menopausal symptoms measured.

But hey, animal estrogens work, too. Millions of women used to be on horse hormones, Premarin, from pregnant mare urine. That took care of hot flashes, too, and curtailed osteoporosis—but caused a pesky little side effect called breast cancer. Thankfully, when this was realized, and millions of women stopped taking it, breast cancer rates fell in countries around the world. This is data from California.

The question, then, is are the estrogens in hops more like the breast cancer-promoting horse estrogens, or the breast cancer-preventing Soy estrogens? The key to understanding the health-protective potential of the soy phytoestrogens is understanding the difference between the two types of estrogen receptors. There’s alpha receptors and beta receptors.

Unlike animal estrogen, the soy phytoestrogens bind preferentially to the beta receptors. And in breast tissue, they’re like Yin and yang, with the alpha receptors signaling breast cell proliferation— explaining why horse hormones increase breast cancer risk; whereas the beta receptors, where the soy binds, oppose that proliferative impact.

So, do the hops phytoestrogens prefer beta too? No, 8-PN is a selective estrogen receptor alpha promoter. Surprisingly, and in clear contrast to the soy, 8-PN is a much weaker binder of the beta than of alpha. So, that explains why hops are such a common ingredient in so-called breast enhancing supplements because it acts more like estrogen. Given the breast cancer concerns, use of such products should be discouraged.

But just drinking beer could provide the exposure to the hops estrogen, as is found in these kinds of products—which could help explain why beer may be more carcinogenic to the breast than some other forms of alcohol.

The stereotype is that girls tend to drink wine or lighter beers while men prefer darker ales or hoppy brews. Recent trending online information, however, claims that hoppy beers might contain a feminine product that can increase estrogen levels and Gynecomastia (man boobs), as well as contribute to erectile dysfunction.

Hops are the female flowers of the hop plant and have high levels of phytoestrogen or estrogen for plants and that hops found in your favorite IPAs could potentially lead to man boobs.

Hops were historically used in herbal medicine pre-1500s to treat insomnia and as a source of phytoestrogen to help with menopause and endometriosis among women. Hops might have also been used to reduce sexual desire among monks, though it’s difficult to substantiate whether it really worked. Of course, we’ve all heard that when you’re too drunk, you can’t keep it up — and this is where the term “Brewer’s Droop” comes from.

But is this information really scientific? There haven’t been any studies done to provide evidence to Buhner’s claims. Yes, hops contain phytoestrogen, but to what extent can consumption of IPAs lead to man boobs or other estrogen-related issues in men? Is “Brewer’s Droop” caused by hops or just by drinking too much?

Of course, don’t let this prevent you from drinking IPAs if you’re a dude. The amount of phytoestrogen actually consumed in a few IPAs isn’t going to directly give you man boobs. Besides, phytoestrogen is frequently found in foods like soybeans, wheat, beans, carrots, potatoes -and even coffee and marijuana. It’s unnecessary to steer away from hoppy beers, and the only concern a man should have when drinking a lot of beer is the calorie intake (which is likely the biggest contributor to the beer gut and man boobs).

If you suffer from man boobs and you drink a lot of beer… Quit blaming the estrogen and go for a run.

While hops in beer may actually be positive for women. Hops have aphrodisiac-like qualities for women, as because of the phytoestrogen it contains, which mimic natural estrogen. Low sex drive in women is often caused by low levels of estrogen.

Consuming beer, especially hop-rich varieties like IPA, could actually help restore hormonal balance and help with libido and also alleviate menopausal symptoms of fatigue, irritability, and hot flashes.Of course, hops can be taken directly as an herb as an infusion, but isn’t it more fun to drink a beer instead?

Women, feel free to enjoy a hops-rich beer like an IPA, a pleasure that may impart some health benefits.

Cheers !!!!

For as long as I can remember, I have always been the youngest Brewer around: youngest student, youngest trainee and youngest teacher.

Related image

I was on the brewing bandwagon about 5 years before it became trendy, and by the time it did, I thought myself lucky. I was a legal brewer before I could legally drink, and in a world where everyone seemed to be getting certified, I was ahead of the game. Or so I thought.
While I’m still the youngest, I’m starting to notice the age gap slowly closing. Not because I’m getting older, but because the trainees are getting younger. What does this mean for our profession? What does this mean for our teaching? What does this mean for our students?
I’m not going to lie, all of my favorite brewers are older than me. They have been brewing for over a decade, and there is a quiet competence in their brewing. I haven’t stumbled upon many young brewers who are as intelligently submerged in the brewing. When new brewers come to me for training, I send them to my teachers—older, wiser, more experienced—people who I trust to give a good, solid answer.
Why am I not giving these answers myself?
I suppose some part of me still believes that I’m an amateur brewer. I am asked to create safe spaces for personal growth while I am still growing and shaping myself. I have a strong, ever-changing brewing practice that honors my age.
It was my first teacher—older and wiser—who believed my youth to be my greatest advantage. He told me there is energy within young brewers that cannot be faked. We appear instantly relatable and perceptive. We sit up there brewing with our hearts cracked wide open and a myriad of insecurities just beneath the surface, brewing with a wild inhibition engendered simply from our youth.

These trepidations of the unknown worries that we’re not good enough and aspirations for recognition lead young brewers to turn outward, rather than inward, when doubts or questions arise. When left to our own devices, we turn to friends and colleagues for advice, rather than turning inward to our own. Yet here is where young brewers have the power to set ourselves apart: like our teachers, we have the capacity to turn inward, and the more we do, the better our teaching will become. Svadhyaya (self-study) doesn’t come from age or experience, but through passionate dedication to the practice.

This is, of course, is where we all started. We recognized that there is something happening within the brewing practice that brings us closer to ourselves. But the young brewers of today, armed with brewing degrees, have been unleashed into a world filled with easy distractions such as Instafame, competitions.
Suddenly, what first brought us to our brewery has been replaced with an anxious, obsessive desire to be noticed.We watch other brewers sell out them self and retreats, and we cling to the idea that we are only a few years away from a similar stardom. But we’re not. And we shouldn’t be.

As this industry becomes increasingly competitive—pressuring us to focus outward on time slots and brand ambassadors, brewing .what we need more than ever is an influx of passionate, young brewer dedicated to Svadhyaya—the practice of facing in. This means taking the time to, understand the brewing texts, studying biology, biochemistry and embracing constructive feedback. We must keep showing up, time and time again, with that same energy and enthusiasm that brought us here in the first place—the commitment to personal growth.
As more and more young brewers get certified, we can either promote ourselves or pro-brewing.We can shine briefly and burn out quickly, or we can stick around for the long haul, staying curious and malleable, willing to change and grow with our age—constantly reading and absorbing new information—but continuously rooted in the reasons why we came.
This is my intention.
We are part of a large industry with only a little influence, but we have the capacity to inspire genuine connection and growth. What makes us special is that we don’t have all the answers; our brewing skills are accessible, energetic and changing. We must embrace our youthful insecurity, using it for growth, staying vulnerable and relatable as we become the older, wiser, mentors of the future.

Open letter to all Microbrewery/craft brewery Owners/Brewer India 

Craft Breweries/Microbrewery in general deal with a lot of the same hazards, just on different scales and in turn use many of the same forms of PPE. It include Neoprene based or heavy duty gloves that are rated for use with corrosive and/or acutely toxic chemicals. Ear plugs for helping to protect workers from noise. Safety glasses and face shields to help protect workers eyes and faces. Respirators for use in a respiratory program, or dust masks for optional use when milling or weighing out hops.

If identified hazards that cannot be eliminated, engineered out or maintained through administrative controls, must be made safest with the use of proper PPE.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer’s body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter.
I’ve seen many safety related problems at various projects in various parts of India due to unavailability of PPEs

1. There are no neoprene chemical resistant due due which operators are having chemical as well as caustic burns on their hands.And next day they are coming with open wounded hands ,which is a source of contamination to the beer. More on than he himself can not deliver his work in an efficient way.

2. There are no safety shoes due to which their feet are unprotected from hot water,rinsed chemical after CIP and it causes again wounds on their feet. Again open wounds are source of contamination.

3. Face shields are also not present to save their face from chemical spillage

4. Fumes of caustic and nitric acid are very hazardous for human being and for that we also require nose masks.

5. There are no ear plugs which which can be used at the time of milling operations.

6. There is no first aid box.
Kindly provide them required PPEs so that they can Brew in a safe , efficient , zero accidents and with cent percent occupational health and safety.